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Jeff McMahan - Intencja, dopuszczalność, terroryzm i wojna (Intention, permissibility, terrorism, and war) Wyróżnione

"There are many important moral beliefs that have been comparatively stable
over time and across cultures that seem to presuppose that the intention with
which one acts can affect the permissibility of one’s action. Until about forty
years ago, the consensus among moral philosophers was that these beliefs are
indeed best explained and justified by the idea that intention is relevant to
permissibility, an idea that has traditionally been articulated in the Doctrine of
Double Effect. This is the doctrine that it can be permissible to bring about
bad effects, including the deaths of innocent people, provided that they are not
intended either as an end or as a means but are unavoidable and proportionate
side effects of the pursuit of good ends. Over the last four decades, however,
the consensus in support of this view has dissolved. Most consequentialists (for
example, act-consequentialists) have always maintained that it is permissible to
intend to cause bad effects when this is a necessary means of producing the
greatest good, so it is unsurprising that the earliest of the recent attacks on the
relevance of intention to permissibility came primarily from philosophers who, if
not avowedly consequentialists, are close enough to be reasonably mistaken for
consequentialists.1 Over the past two decades, however, a number of distinguished
deontological and contractualist moral theorists have joined the attack, as have
many practitioners of “experimental philosophy,” and their combined efforts
have probably reduced Double Effect to a minority position among moral
philosophers. Between 2000 and 2007, when I was one of the editors of Ethics,
I reviewed a number of submissions by junior philosophers in which Double
Effect was relegated to a footnote and dismissed as an exploded view that no
reasonable person could take seriously. I saw that as evidence of a decisive shift
in philosophical orthodoxy."...
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