Jeff McMahan - Interwencja i zbiorowe samostanowienie (Intervention and Collective Self-Determination)

"Intervention by one state in the affairs of another is normally objectionable for
a variety of reasons, many of them moral. Most actual instances of military
intervention, for example, are motivated entirely by the interests of the
intervening state and tend to be unjust, brutal, and exploitative, Even when there
is a good moral reason—or just cause—for intervention, and even when the
intervention is motivated, at least in part, by a desire to achieve the just cause, the
intervening state is almost certain to exploit its advantage in ways that are
harmful to the state that is the target of the intervention. Typically, moreover,
military intervention, even in pursuit of a just cause, will fail to satisfy certain
requirements of the traditional theory of the just war. It will fail to satisfy the
requirement of necessity if there is an alternative means of achieving the just
cause that is less destructive but has a comparable probability of success. And it
will fail to satisfy the requirement of proportionality if the probable harm it would
cause exceeds the probable good involved in achieving the just cause, taking due
account of such considerations as the innocence or non-innocence of those
benefited or harmed. 1 Because of the threat of counter-intervention, escalation,
and wider war, military intervention often involves disproportionate risks or

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